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Romania, Republic of Moldova, Russia the difference and intercommunity of the church architecture

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In this article we would like to offer you a review of the church architecture, in the terms of the article «Romania and Russia, difference and commonality of church architecture», we want to suggest you as a object of study a church located in Romania, in the village Turea, District Cluj-Napoca (Cluj-Napoca), Region Cluj. This church is of great historical value not only because of its age (it was built, according to the inscription on the door – 1760), but much due to the peculiarities of the architecture, which is found only in this region. This is the second religious monument which can be seen in the Village Museum of Bucharest. This wooden church in the village of Turea, refers, as we have already mentioned, to the middle of XVIII century. It is built of thick and very wide oak plates, laid on the base of rough stone. The ends of the upper crown goes for over the corners of a four-sided apse of the altar, on the sides of the front facade and along the side walls, forming a series arranged in sequence consoles, resembling the outstretched wings of birds. These consoles support the roof, giving strength, balance and harmony throughout the extraordinary architecture of the building.

Museum workers believe that the church is interesting as an example of some of the original methods of construction technics and source of undoubted importance due to the perfection and harmony of its proportions. We want to draw your attention to the fact that the church, like many others in Transylvania, especially in the north-west, have much in common with some churches in Russia. First of all, it is striking Kizhi, but it is necessary to say that there is no complete identity, the difference is, and very large. Russian churches are still more likely to orthodox forms, smooth, or, as artists say, warm forms. Romanian church architecture tends more to Western standards — Gothic style, aspirati ng skyward using more straight or cold lines. Of course, analyze the architecture of the church just in terms of the used form of art is not enough to form a clear picture of the worldview of the builders, but still allows you to feel the spirit of architecture of the studied nation.

Blackened, the building seems to be a low under the expending down, high roof, covered with oak shingles decorated with ornamental carvings. We ‘ve got to say a few words about the decoration of churches in the whole Romania. First of all, the Orthodox Church of Romania are very different from those of Russian Orthodox churches, because here predominates woodcarving. As we know, in Russia, the decor is full of gold, and an abundance of icons. T here is no such thing in Romania. Another feature of the Romanian Church is that the further we move to the north of Romania, the lesser are the churches richly decorated. In the South, the situation is different, but I must underline the fact that an even greater difference in the decor of the Romanian Church can be seen when comparing the western part of Romania Churches and Churches of the East. From East it should be noted particularly Moldova. And the Republic of Moldova walked irs own way of development, in spite of centuries of common tradition, but the Romanian Moldova still weighs more to the West. However, in most churches on the territory of Romania the churche of the Romanian Moldova are very different from other churches due to the fact that here we can see m uch rich er decor, more saturated colors.

Let us continue the analysis of the church Turea. Above the porch stands a graceful, pointed tower, constructed in an extremely original way . Four tall pillars that form the edges of a truncated pyramid, installed in hollowed sockets two cross beams resting on the porch wall. Strong struts, built under the eaves into the roof beams, increase the strength and stability of the building. Tower ends quadrangular platform with low columns and arches, that underpin a pointed roof, forming the dome. In the area between the arches are installed «claws» for two church bells. The lower ends of boards that form the balustrade of the platform, end with sawed pattern, and in the center of each of the four sides there is a a cross-shaped decorative motif.

At the four corners of the main cupola are four smaller cupola with form of small pyramids, end with small wooden crosses of the same shape as the two larger crosses, one of which is mounted on top of the main cupola and the other — on the roof of the church, above the altar. Inside the church is divided into three parts: the porch and the altar of the ship. Porch ceiling — even, the ship – vaulted, the altar ceiling is in the form of a hemisphere. Internal oak arcades are decorated with relief carvings and linear ornaments.

Small windows pass very little light, and in the church it reigns twilight. On the wooden arch ship are still preserved traces of decorative painting.

As seen from the images, the similarity between the Russian wooden church architecture and Romanian is clearly observed. Nevertheless, each country followed its way, not taking over the artistic traditions of a neighbor, and not even attempting to imitate the architecture of the other country. High towers are most likely dictated by climatic conditions, but also, of course, by the mentality. Even from the images above, we can see that each culture having many similarities, still developed in their own way.

As for Moldova, examples of wooden church architecture today is nearly impossible to find, but this architecture existed. We may be able to find the eventually, this examples, and show them. Now, unfortunately, we have to go for analogues to Romanian sources. 

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